Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Modesty in the Lord's Sanctuary

    Choosing an outfit everyday is the dilemma many people face daily. The choosing of the outfit is based on the occasion the individual is going to. A person going to weddings, formals, proms, a job interview, funerals, etc. is likely to wear formal clothes such as suits and dresses. A person going out with friends, school, and parties might dress casual. What about church? There was time when everyone wore finer clothes on Sundays, that is where the term “Sunday’s best.” Men wore suits and women wore a dress and a headdress, either a hat or a veil. This all changed as society and time changed. Around the 1960s-1970s, it was common to see churchgoers wearing tank-tops, t-shirts, shorts etc. clothes that evokes lust than prayer. Many people dress as if they were going to the beach or even night clubbing. Shorts and clothes that reveal shoulders and backs, even stomachs, has been worn in church during the celebration of the Liturgy. They dress more for a party than meeting with the Lord. Formal clothes became a staple of the past, only found in the confines of traditional churches and formal occasions. Our clothes are as important as our being, our clothes express our inward being.

    Church has become casual to many people, even to the point that church is regarded not that special of an event to wear formal clothes. By wearing formal clothes we express the importance of the event we are going to partake of. Many ask if there is any dress code in churches. The Church, in the Scripture and her tradition, gives us a “dress code” that does not only pertains to church, but also to daily life. St. Paul tells us, “also that women should adorn themselves modestly and sensibly in seemly apparel, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly attire but by good deeds, as befits women who profess religion” (1 Timothy 2:9-10). The latest fashion trend is based on how much we can show our bodies, there is no more sense of covering our bodies. This has been a consequence of society being highly sexualized. Modesty has become for “old, boring people.” This virtue has been disregarded and shunned by many, preferring revealing clothes. It is a clear irony to do when we pray the Lord’s Prayer. Every Sunday we recite “Et ne nos inducas in tentationem”, and lead us not into temptation (Matthew 6:13). Yet many of us dress in a way that goes against this prayer. Our minds are drawn away from prayer to thoughts that, if shown to everyone, might be shameful. Christ warns us, “‘Woe to the world for temptations to sin! For it is necessary that temptations come, but woe to the man by whom the temptation comes!’” (Matthew 18:7). The Church teaches, “Purity requires modesty, an integral part of temperance. Modesty protects the intimate center of the person. It means refusing to unveil what should remain hidden. It is ordered to chastity to whose sensitivity it bears witness. It guides how one looks at others and behaves toward them in conformity with the dignity of persons and their solidarity. Modesty protects the mystery of persons and their love. It encourages patience and moderation in loving relationships; it requires that the conditions for the definitive giving and commitment of man and woman to one another be fulfilled. Modesty is decency. It inspires one's choice of clothing. It keeps silence or reserve where there is evident risk of unhealthy curiosity. It is discreet” (Catechism of the Catholic Church 2521-2522). We are to dress that “in such a way that you will not cause another believer to stumble and fall.” (Romans 14:13). We are living after the fall of man, we have known our nakedness and ashamed of it (Genesis 3:10), “And the Lord God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them” (Genesis 3:21). Therefore, we must wear clothes that cover ourselves. Not clothes that reveals our bodies and causes us “to stumble and fall.” Christ reminds us, in the Parable of the Wedding Feast, “‘But when the king came in to look at the guests, he saw there a man who had no wedding garment; and he said to him, ‘Friend, how did you get in here without a wedding garment?’ And he was speechless. Then the king said to the attendants, ‘Bind him hand and foot, and cast him into the outer darkness; there men will weep and gnash their teeth.’ For many are called, but few are chosen’” (Matthew 22:11-14). The parable pertains to the Church and the wedding feast refers to the Liturgy. Here, both the spiritual and physical are both intertwined. The “wedding garment” refers to the soul clothed in grace. And the clothes we wear expresses our inward state of being. 

    The importance we give to our clothes shows the importance of the event we are going to. Since the fall of man, we are conscious of our sexuality, shame and covering up our body has been the consequence (Genesis 2:25, 3:7, 3:10-11). Scripture also warns of the temptation of the flesh that is brought by feminine shamelessness (Proverbs 2:16, 5:3, 7:5-27). The New Testament speaks of modesty both in the physical and spiritual: in looks, words, and behavior (Matthew 5:28; Ephesians 5:3-20; 2 Peter 2:14). Churches are insistent in advising dress codes for “liturgical ministers”, but fail to address the problem that is within the congregation.

Not acceptable for men:

Short pants, jogging pants, jeans, caps, sports jerseys, sports logo, t-shirts, beach wear, working outfits, tight clothing, and extreme piercings that are distracting.

Not acceptable for women:
Any dress or skirt that does not completely cover the knee when sitting or standing, (Slacks are not acceptable in Traditional Churches), shorts, skimpy shorts, tank tops, spaghetti-strap tops, tops with sleeves that do not reach the elbow, tops that are more than two fingers width from the pit of the throat, plunging necklines, beach wear, flashy clothing and hot colors that are distracting and that may be perceived as enticing, extreme piercings that are distracting, sleeveless, tight or low-cut clothing or dresses with long cuts or slits, tight clothing, and any and all see-through clothing.

Even the Vatican and the major basilicas of Rome have a strict dress code, where those who do not comply to this is not admitted. It forbids: hats for lay men inside the basilica, shorts/skirts above the knees, sleeveless shirts, shirts exposing the navel, shirts for women that expose cleavage, shirts which contain profanity, excessive jewelry, the use of mobile phones is also prohibited, as is smoking. 

Monday, December 8, 2014

Latin in the Liturgy: Post-Vatican II

The Second Vatican Council oversaw how the Church related herself to the modern world. This spirit of reform was prevalent in almost all aspect of life after the First and Second World War. The Council touched on issues such as the the Liturgy and social teachings. To everyone, the most obvious reform of the Second Vatican Council was the Mass being celebrated in the vernacular and facing the people. However, none of the council's documents ever instituted, what seems to be, reforms. The Church never suggested the abandonment of Latin within the Liturgy. In almost all parishes the Mass is celebrated in the vernacular. However, this was not the desire that the Council had for the Liturgy. Even the pope that introduced the Mass we have today recommended the use of Latin within the Liturgy. 

Before the convening of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), Pope St. John XXIII has already promoted the retainment of Latin in the Church, including in her Liturgy. Pope St. John XXIII stated in CONSTITVTIO APOSTOLICA DE LATINITATIS STVDIO PROVEHENDO, VETERVM SAPIENTIA (February 22, 1962),
Pope St. John XXIII

Of its very nature Latin is most suitable for promoting every form of culture among peoples. It gives rise to no jealousies. It does not favor any one nation, but presents itself with equal impartiality to all and is equally acceptable to all. Nor must we overlook the characteristic nobility of Latin for mal structure. Its ‘concise, varied and harmonious style, full of majesty and dignity’4 makes for singular clarity and impressiveness of expression.

To St. John XXIII, Latin was a language of unity. He saw it's importance in the Church and beauty that it presents. To him, Latin is an inclusive language that does not favor one nation. Along the lines of St. John XXIII, his predecessor, Pope Pius XI noted that, 

Pope Pius XI
For the Church, since it contains all nations in its embrace, since it is going to endure until the consummation of the ages, and since it utterly excludes the common people from its governance, requires by its own nature a universal language, unchangeable, not that of the common people

—Apostolic Letter Officiorum Omnium, 1922. 
Venerable Pope Pius XII noted, “The use of the Latin language prevailing in a great part of the Church affords at once an imposing sign of unity and an effective safeguard against the corruptions of true doctrine” (Mediator Dei, 1947, Sec. 60). Latin was seen as an outward sign for the Church, it reflected the Church immutability of doctrines. Latin, immutable, reflected doctrine. It neither changes with time and with the opinion of society.
Venerable Pope Pius XII

During the Second Vatican Council, the council fathers emphasized the usage of Latin amidst the promotion of the Mass in the vernacular. The only document published concerning the Liturgy during Council clearly shows the importance of Latin within the Liturgy. The Sacrosanctum Concilium (December 4, 1963) encourages, 

36. 1. Particular law remaining in force, the use of the Latin language is to be preserved in the Latin rites.
2. But since the use of the mother tongue, whether in the Mass, the administration of the sacraments or other parts of the liturgy, frequently may be of great advantage to the people, the limits of its employment may be extended. This will apply in the first place to the readings and directives, and to some of the prayers and chants, according to the regulations on this matter to be laid down separately in subsequent chapters.
3. These norms being observed, it is for the competent territorial ecclesiastical authority mentioned in Art. 22, 2, to decide whether and to what extent the vernacular language is to be used; their decrees are to be approved, that is, confirmed, by the Apostolic See. And, whenever it seems to be called for, this authority is to consult with bishops of neighboring regions which have the same language.

Sacrosanctum Concilium, CHAPTER I: General Principles for the Restoration and Promotion of the Sacred Liturgy, III. The Reform of the Sacred Liturgy, C: Norms based upon the didactic and pastoral nature of the Liturgy

It was never the Church's intent to abandon Latin within the Liturgy and in the Sacraments. It was the innovations of some "liturgical experts" that this became enforced, never was it the Council's intent of reform. 

Blessed Pope Paul VI suggested the retainment of Latin within the Liturgy. He promoted and encouraged the faithful to learn the responses and prayers that belongs to them and the use of the Gregorian chant. 

The Bond of Unity. The Second Vatican Council in the "Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy" added the following reminder to its exhortation that vernacular languages should have a suitable place in liturgical celebration: It should be arranged that the faithful can say or sing together in Latin those parts of the Ordinary of the Mass that belongs to them.
The Supreme Pontiff Paul VI has followed this trend of thought in recent times. he has often expressed two desires: that Gregorian Chant with its pleasing melody might accompany and support the Eucharistic celebrations of the people of God; that the voices of the faithful might resound in both the Gregorian Chant and in the vernacular.

Iubilate Deo, Preface, Pope Paul VI, 14 April 1974

Blessed Paul VI encourages us to learn the Latin, never was it his intent to abandon it. His admiration for Latin he expressed in Sacrificium Laudis (August 15, 1966), “The Latin language is assuredly worthy of being defended with great care instead of being scorned; for the Latin Church it is the most abundant source of Christian civilization and the richest treasury of piety…. We must not hold in low esteem these traditions of your fathers, which were your glory for centuries… We cannot permit something that could be the cause of your own downfall, that could be the source of serious loss to you, and that surely would afflict the Church of God with sickness and sadness… The same Church gives you the mandate to safeguard the traditional dignity, beauty, and gravity of the choral office in both its language [Latin] and its chant… Obey the commands that a great love for your own ancient observances itself suggests…” (Sacrificium Laudis, Epistle to Superiors General of Clerical Religious Institutes Bound to Choir, on the Celebration of the Divine Office in Latin). It is a clear misunderstanding of Blessed Paul VI's intention to suggest that his papacy was vent on the abandonment of Latin with the introduction of Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite. His admiration and encouragement of Latin suggests the opposite of the accusations thrown at him by schismatic "traditionalists." 

Pope St. John Paul II
Pope St. John Paul II also shared his sentiment with Latin. He admired it's proper place within the Liturgy and the beauty of it, saying, “Nevertheless, there are also those people who, having been educated on the basis of the old liturgy in Latin, experience the lack of this “one language,” which in all the world was an expression of the unity of the Church and through its dignified character elicited a profound sense of the Eucharistic Mystery. It is therefore necessary to show not only understanding but also full respect towards these sentiments and desires. As far as possible these sentiments and desires are to be accommodated, as is moreover provided for in the new dispositions. The Roman Church has special obligations towards Latin, the splendid language of ancient Rome, and she must manifest them whenever the occasion presents itself.” (Pope John Paul II, Dominicae Cenae, February 24, 1980, sec. 10). He also, with his predecessors, discourage it's abandonment. He noted that, 

The use of the vernacular has certainly opened up the treasures of the liturgy to all who take part, but this does not mean that the Latin language, and especially the chants which are so superbly adapted to the genius of the Roman Rite, should be wholly abandoned.

—Pope St. John Paul II, Fidelity to Doctrinal Foundations Must Guide All Liturgical Renewal, Address to US Bishops, 9 October 1998

He reminds the bishops that Latin is not to be abandoned. It was never the church's intent to replace Latin with the vernacular, not a total but partial use of the vernacular.

Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, a symbol of staunch conservatism, noted that,

People say nowadays that the liturgy reflects the religious experience of the congregation and that the congregation is the only real agent in the liturgy; that leads in fact not only in the direction of a complete fragmentation of the liturgy but toward the destruction of the liturgy as such, for if the liturgy merely reflects the religious experience of the congregation, it no longer involves the presence of the mystery.
—Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI), Collected Works: Theology of the LiturgyPart EFurther PerspectivesDiscussion of The Spirit of the LiturgyVAssessment and Future Prospects, 1The Spiritual and Historical Components of the Liturgical Movement, pg. 561
His opinion reflects the perversion of the Church's intent of "inculturation." He notes that this perversion only excludes rather than includes. He also noted,

Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI
In reality what happened was that an unprecedented clericalization came on the scene. Now the priest—'the presider', as they now prefer to call him—becomes the real point of reference for the whole liturgy. Everything depends on him. We have to see him, to respond to him, to be involved in what he is doing. His creativity sustains the whole thing. Not surprisingly, people try to reduce this newly created role by assigning all kinds of liturgical functions to different individuals and entrusting the 'creative' planning of the liturgy to groups of people who like to, and are supposed to, 'make their own contribution'. Less and less is God in the picture. More and more important is what is done by the human beings who meet here and do not like to subject themselves to a 'pre-determined pattern'. The turning of the priest toward the people has turned the community into a self-enclosed circle. In its outward form, it no longer opens out what lies ahead and above, but closed in on itself.

—Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI). Collected Works: Theology of the Liturgy, Part A, "The Spirit of the Liturgy", Chapter II: Time and Space in the Liturgy, Part 3: The Altar and the Direction of the Liturgical Prayer, pages 48-49

The Church's intent to use the vernacular was never to the point of abandoning Latin. This was never the Council's intent nor the papacy's. What the Council was notorious of was never its intent. We as the faithful should know what is to be recited in Latin and what is to be recited in the vernacular. For the Church says,

Pastors of souls should take care that besides the vernacular ‘the faithful also know how to say or sing, in Latin also, those parts of the Ordinary of the Mass which pertain to them.’

Instruction on Music in the Sacred Liturgy, Sacred Congregation of Rites, 5 March 1967

The synthesis is not far from us. We need not look elsewhere than the East. Our Eastern brothers already offers a solution to us. Their liturgy is what the Council had in mind, the vernacular and their church's ancient language. The Coptic Orthodox Church uses Coptic alongside Arabic and the particular vernacular of their dioceses. The Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic uses Koine Greek. Each of the Eastern Churches uses their ancient language alongside modern languages. 

41. The main place should be given, all things being equal, to Gregorian chant, as being proper to the Roman Liturgy. Other kinds of sacred music, in particular polyphony, are in no way excluded, provided that they correspond to the spirit of the liturgical action and that they foster the participation of all the faithful.Since the faithful from different countries come together ever more frequently, it is desirable that they know how to sing together at least some parts of the Ordinary of the Mass in Latin, especially the Profession of Faith and the Lord’s Prayer, according to the simpler settings.

General Instruction of the Roman Missal; Chapter II: The Structure of the Mass, its Elements, and its Parts; II. The Different Elements of the Mass; The Importance of Singing 

It is not disobedience or defiance that one chooses to recite parts in Latin and pray in Latin during the Liturgy. It is submission and extreme obedience to the magisterium, to the Second Vatican Council, and to the Supreme Pontiff.

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

JOHN 20:28

Thomas answered him, ‘My Lord and my God!’
John 20:28, RSVCE

St. Thomas' proclamation baffles anti-Trinitarians, such as the Iglesia Ni Cristo. Their argument ranges from an expression of surprise to Thomas' unbelief. They argue that Thomas was in a state of error or unbelief when he proclaimed this. This is expressed by their apologist's statement:

Take note of what the Lord Jesus Christ said to Thomas before he made the statement recorded in John 20:28. Jesus said to him, ‘Reach your finger here, and look at My hands; and reach your hand here, and put it into My side. DO NOT BE UNBELIEVING, but believing.’… Remember that when Thomas made the statement recorded in John 20:28 he was not in the act of preaching and he was from a state of unbelief, thus it is not surprising if he committed mistake.



The Iglesia Ni Cristo argues that St. Thomas' statement must not be taken as a proclamation due to the preceding verses (Jn. 20:27). They contend that this was a expression given by an unbelieving apostle. However, the contrary is given by Jesus. Indeed Thomas was in a state of doubt prior to his encounter with the Resurrected Lord. However, St. Thomas did not continue in his disbelief. If we read the following verse, we come to understand that what St. Thomas expressed in verse 28 was a result of belief. 

Jesus said to him, ‘You have believed because you have seen me. Blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe.’”
John 20:29, RSVCE

It is very clear that what Thomas said was in the state of belief. Christ affirmed what Thomas said by saying, "You have believed." It is very clear that it was not out of doubt that Thomas said such thing, but out of belief. And this Christ blessed. 


καὶ ἀπεκρίθη Θωμᾶς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ὁ Κύριός μου καὶ ὁ Θεός μου.
(kai apekrithē thōmas kai eipen autō o kurios mou kai o theos mou)
ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 20:28, Greek Orthodox Church 1904

Thomas' statement from Greek is “Ὁ Κύριός μου καὶ ὁ Θεός μου” (o kurios mou kai o theos mou). What is interesting that the text, if translated literally, gives a much more powerful effect on St. Thomas' statement. St. Thomas' statement given in Greek is, “The Lord of me and the God of me."


Jesus said to her, ‘Do not hold me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brethren and say to them, I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’
John 20:17, RSVCE

The INC apologist argues, “THOMAS’ STATEMENT CONTRADICTED JESUS’ STATEMENT… Take note that the Gospel that wrote that Thomas stated 'My Lord and my God' was also the Gospel that wrote that the Lord Jesus Christ explicitly stated, 'I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God,' also 'My Father is greater than I,' and 'Father…this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God…' Obviously, Thomas failed to remember these words of his Master. Thus, Thomas statement in John 20:28 contradicted what His Master has taught Him.” They argue that Christ's statement in John 20:17 contradicts Thomas' statement in verse 28. Making Thomas in a state of ignorance and error in his statement. 

Such statement shows complete ignorance of who Christ is. Christ was not only Divine, but also fully human. Part of being human is to acknowledge God and to worship Him. Christ, in His human nature, here recognized the Father and praises Him. What is interesting is that Christ did not say "our Father" and "our God", rather He said "my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.” What Christ implies is that God's Fatherhood towards the apostles and the disciples is not the same as Christ's relationship with the Father. In our sense we are the Father's adopted children (Romans 8:15), children of God by grace (John 1:12). Jesus is the Son of God by nature (John 1:18). Jesus clearly put a distinction between Mary Magdalene and the apostles. This suggests that there is a different sense between the relationship of the Father and Son and ours with the  Father. It also suggests that there is a different sense of how God is related to Christ and us.

Whenever a person was in error in the Scripture, they are reprimanded right away. For example, when Paul and Barnabas were in Lystra they showed them that they were not the gods Zeus and Hermes, but only humans and commanded them to worship the true God who made Heaven and Earth (Acts 14:14-15). In Revelation 19:10, the angel rebuked John's show of worship. In Acts 12:22-23 we read that Herod Agrippa received the praises of the crowds as a god and not give it to God, "he was eaten by worms and died" (Acts 12:23). Yet Jesus did not correct Thomas. It suggests then that Thomas was not in error as the Iglesia Ni Cristo insists. Rather, Thomas was accurate in his statement. 

Sunday, July 13, 2014

1 TIMOTHY 4:3, Meat or Food?

Bro. Ventilacion and the Iglesia Ni Cristo shows their ignorance in their knowledge of Old English. In Old English, "meat" was synonymous to "food." Bibles written in old English shows this, e.g. Douai-Rheims and King James Version. 

And he shall take of it his handful, of the flour of the meat offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meat offering, and shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour, even the memorial of it, unto the LORD.
Leviticus 6:15, King James Version

Then said he unto me, This is the place where the priests shall boil the trespass offering and the sin offering, where they shall bake the meat offering; that they bear them not out into the utter court, to sanctify the people.
Ezekiel 46:20, King James Version

Modern translations uses "fine flour of the cereal offering” for Leviticus 6:15 and “bake the cereal offering” for Ezekiel 46:20. We clearly can see that "meat" in Old English was used in reference to all kinds of food, animal flesh and agricultural products. 

As we can see, in old Elizabethan English the word "meat" was synonymous with the word "food." In an online Elizabethan English dictionary, the word "meat" is defined as “Definitions meat (n.) 1 food, nourishment, meat (n.) 2 edible part, meat (n.) 3 foodstuff, fodder, scraps” (http://www.shakespeareswords.com/Search.aspx). The word "meat" came from an Old English word "mete". “The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general.” (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meat). It did not only describe animal flesh, but all types of food. The Iglesia Ni Cristo bases it's doctrine in a complete ignorance of this fact, believing that in 1 Timothy 4:3 the correct understanding is "meat" of an animal. If we examine it closely, the Greek word used is “brōmatōn” (βρωμάτων). This word is a plural form of "bróma" (βρῶμα). Bible dictionary defines "bróma" as “food of any kind.” (Strong's Concordance 1033). The Greek word for "meat" is not "bróma", but "krea." "Kreas" (κρέας) is defined as “flesh; plur: pieces of flesh, kinds of flesh.” (Strong's Concordance 2907). 

It is better not to eat meat (krea, κρέα) or drink wine or to do anything else that will cause your brother or sister to fall.
Romans 14:21, New International Version

Saturday, July 12, 2014


The Eucharist is very important to the Church. The Church defines the Eucharist as “the source and summit of the Christian life” (Catechism 1324). It is what gives us life because we receive Him who is life (John 1:4, 5:26, 11:25, 14:6). “So Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you  eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you;’” (John 6:53). Without the reception of the Eucharist, St. Paul says, we “are weak and ill, and some have died” (1 Corinthians 11:30). That is the reason why the Church calls the Eucharist the source of Her life. It is also here that we receive grace that enables us to do God's will (2 Corinthians 9:8, 12:9; Ephesians 3:20; Philippians 4:13). It is what energizes us to walk with God “and put on the new nature, created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness” (Ephesians 4:24). Apart from receiving, we return the results of the grace received. The works of the Church are offered to the Father together with Christ's once and for all sacrifice on Calvary. We unite with Christ the results of our love of Him (John 14:15). The love we show to Him and to others is sacrificial in its essence. We sacrifice time helping the poor and needy. We sacrifice our self in missionary works. We sacrifice personal leisure helping our neighbor and visiting the sick and in prison. We sacrifice resources to feed the hungry. All of the corporal works of mercy requires a sacrifice from us. We give up something to share the love we first received from Him. Along with Christ's sacrifice we offer ourselves as “a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship” (Romans 12:1). The Church tells us what this living sacrifice we offer to God is, “For all their works, prayers and apostolic endeavors, their ordinary married and family life, their daily occupations, their physical and mental relaxation, if carried out in the Spirit, and even the hardships of life, if patiently borne—all these become "spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ".(cf. 1 Peter 2:5) Together with the offering of the Lord's body, they are most fittingly offered in the celebration of the Eucharist. Thus, as those everywhere who adore in holy activity, the laity consecrate the world itself to God” (DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH, LUMEN GENTIUM, no. 34).

Wednesday, July 2, 2014

Comentario sa Exodo 20:4-5

Exodus 20:4-6

Ang pinagbawal sa Exodo 20:4-5 ay hindi ang pag-gawa ng mga imagen, pero sa pagsamba sa mga ito. Ang mga versicolong nakapalibot nito ay nagpapatunay sa ganitong pag-unawa, sila ay nagtutukoy sa pagbigay ng pagsamba sa Dios lamang. Sa versicolo 3 mababasa natin na bawal magkaroon ng ibang dios, "Huwag kang magkaroon ng ibang mga Dios sa harap ko" at sa versicolo 5 mababasa natin na ang Dios ay mapanibughuin. Ang Dios ay nagbigay ng dahilan kung bakit sya "mapanibughuin" dahil sa pagbigay ng pagsamba sa mga ginawang bagay, “Huwag mong yuyukuran sila, o paglingkuran man sila; sapagka't akong Panginoon mong Dios, ay Dios na mapanibughuin” (Exodo 20:5). Sa Exodo 32:8 mababasa natin na ang gumawa ng guyang binubo at ito ay sinamba nila. Sa Levitico 19:14 mababasa matin na ang paggawang pagka-dios ng isang bagay ang ang pinagbawal. Ang pagsamba sa isang imagen ang pinagbawal sa Levitico 26:1 at sa Deuteronimio 5:8-9. Ang tunay na pinagbawal sa Ikaunang Utus ay ang pagsamba sa imagen, ito ay napakalinaw'ng basahin sa 2 Mga Hari 17:12.

Ang dahilan kung bakit kasali sa versicolo ang utus na "Huwag kang gagawa para sa iyo ng larawang inanyuan" ay ang mga Judeo ay madaling mahulog sa pagsamba ng mga dios-diosan, bilang parte sa isang mundo na sumasamba sa mariming mga dios. Sila ay madaling ihalintulad ang Dios na hindi nakikita sa mga bagay na nakikita, katulad ng mga hayop (Makikita natin sa pag-gawa ng guyang binubo, Ex. 32:8) at ng mga tao (Awit 135:15-17; Deuteronomio 4:28). Dahil hindi pa nila nakikita ang Dios, hindi rin nila kayang ilarawan ang Dios na hindi nila nakikita (Deuteronomio 4:15-16). Ito ay binago sa pagkatao ni Cristo, dahil ang Dios ay nagpakatao (Juan 1:1, 14; Felipos 2:6-8; Colossas 1:15; Hebreo 1:3).

Ngunit, mali ang pagunawa sa Exodo 20:4 kung ang pinagbawal ay ang pag-gawa ng mga imagen, ito ay gumagawa ng pagkakasalungatan, kung ganito ang pagunawa natin sa versicolo. Merong mga versicolong mababasa kung saan ang Dios ay umutus na gumawa ng imagen at siya ay tumangap ng handog na imagen (Exodo 18:25-22; Mga Bilang 21:4-9; 1 Samuel 4:4; 6:5; 11, 17-18; 1Mga Hari 6:23-36, 7:27-39; 2 Mga Cronica 3:5, 7, 3:10-14, 3:16, 4:2-5, 13, 15, 5:7-8). Kung basahin natin ang Exodo 20:4-5 sa contexto na ganap na pinagbawal ang mga imagen, ito ay iminungkahi na ang Dios ay sumalungat. At ito ay impossible na gawin ng Dios, “Hindi niya maipagkakaila ang kaniyang sarili.” (2 Kay Timoteo 2:13, SND).

Sa madaling salita, ang pinagbawal ay ang paggawa ng imagen upang sambahin. Ang pag-gawa nitong bilang isang dios. Ang pinagbawal ay ang pagsamba sa imagen, hindi sa pag-gawa nito.

Sunday, June 29, 2014

EXODUS 20:4-5, Commentary

Exodus 20:4-5

The prohibition in Exodus 20:4-5 is not on the making of images, but on the worship of an image. The verses around it supports this understanding, they speak of giving adoration to God alone. Verse 3 speaks of having no other gods, “You shall have no other gods before me.”, while in verse 5 we read that God is a jealous God. God explains His jealousy in the worship or adoration of created beings, “you shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God”. In Exodus 32:8 we read that the calf was seen as being god and was given adoration. In Leviticus 19:14 we read that the prohibition is on the deification of an idol. Worship of an image is prohibited in Leviticus 26:1 and in Deuteronomy 5:8-9. It was more on the worship of an image that the Commandment was centered on, clearly seen in 2 Kings 17:12

The reason why the verse includes "You shall not make for yourself a graven image” is that the ancient Jews were prone to idolatry, being in a polytheistic world. They were prone to imagining the unfathomable God through things that is visible, such as animals (seen by the making of the golden calf, Ex. 32:8) and humans (Psalm 135:15-17; Deuteronomy 4:28). Since they haven't seen God, they couldn't represent the Invisible God (Deuteronomy 4:15-16). This would change as the result of the Incarnation, when we have seen God who became man for us (John 1:1, 14; Philippians 2:6-8; Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 1:3).

However, it is incorrect to read the verse by those words. Reading it as a prohibition on images is wrong, it would create a contradiction. There are various verse where God orders the making of images and accepted images as offerings (Exodus 18:25-22; Numbers 21:4-9; 1 Samuel 4:4; 6:5; 11, 17-18; 1 Kings 6:23-36, 7:27-39; 2 Chronicles 3:5, 7, 3:10-14, 3:16, 4:2-5, 13, 15, 5:7-8). If we read Exodus 20:4-5 in the context of an absolute prohibition on images, it would suggest a contradicting God. Which would be impossible, “if we are faithless, he remains faithful— for he cannot deny himself.” (2 Timothy 2:13, RSVCE).

In short, the prohibition is on the making of images for the sole purpose of making it an object of adoration. Giving it the same treatment as being a god. The prohibition is on the worship and adoration of an image, not in the making of it. 

Peter the Rock

Now I say to you that you are Peter (which means ‘rock’), and upon this rock I will build my church, and all the powers of hell will not conquer it.” 
Matthew 16:18, New Living Translation

Jesus spoke Aramaic, as we can see in the same Gospel Jesus speaking in Aramaic, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?’ (Matthew 27:46). So Jesus must have spoken in Aramaic when he delivered the words in Matthew 16:18. The word he called Peter was “Kepha”, the Gospel of John records this (Cephas). In Aramaic the word “Kepha” means “rock”, so Christ said to Peter, “You are Kepha, and this Kepha I will build my Church”. And from a translation of Aramaic Peshitta,

who is in heaven my Father but my church I will build Keepa this and on Keepa are that you I will give to you will subdue it not of Sheol” 
Mattai 16:18, Peshitta Aramaic/English Interlinear New Testament (The Preaching of Mattai)


And from reading John 1:42, we see that it was in Aramaic, Peter’s name was a translation of the original Aramaic.

Hebrew: you Kefa and upon this kefa

Old Syriac (C): Anath-her Kipha, v’all hode kipha

JOHN 1:42

You are Simon, son of John. You will be called Cephas” (which means “Rock”).
Holman Standard Christian Bible

You are Simon, son of John: you shall be called Cephas” –that is to say, Peter (or ‘Rock’)
Weymouth New Testament 

Thou art Simon, the son of Jonas, thou shalt be called Cephas,’ (which is interpreted, A rock.)
Young’s Literal Translation

As one Protestant commented on this (John 1:42), “The stone, or rock, is a symbol of firmness and steadiness of character – a trait in Peter’s character after the ascension of Jesus that was very remarkable.” (Notes on the Bible by Albert Barnes [1834]). Peter (Cepha-Rock) was called that by Christ, taking from the original language Christ spoke. We cannot deny that Christ called Peter Cepha. Even other verses in the Bible call Peter “Cepha(1 Cor 9:5, 1:12, 3:22, 15:5; Gal 1:18, 2:9, 2:11). If Peter was not the “Rock”, why does Paul and Christ Himself call Peter “Kepha”?

Friday, June 27, 2014

Are Fiestas Biblical?

Some Activities during fiesta:
1) To make an image

And you shall make two cherubim of gold; of hammered work you shall make them at the two ends of the mercy seat. Make one cherub at one end, and the other cherub at the other end; you shall make the cherubim at the two ends of it of one piece with the mercy seat. And the cherubim shall stretch out their wings above, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and they shall face one another; the faces of the cherubim shall be toward the mercy seat. You shall put the mercy seat on top of the ark, and in the ark you shall put the Testimony that I will give you. And there I will meet with you, and I will speak with you from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are on the ark of the Testimony, about everything which I will give you in commandment to the children of Israel.
Exodus 25:18-22, New King James Version

The larger room he paneled with cypress which he overlaid with fine gold, and he carved palm trees and chainwork on it.” 
2 Chronicles 3:5, New King James Version

He also overlaid the house—the beams and doorposts, its walls and doors—with gold; and he carved cherubim on the walls.” 
2 Chronicles 3:7

In the Most Holy Place he made two cherubim, fashioned by carving, and overlaid them with gold. The wings of the cherubim were twenty cubits in overall length: one wing of the one cherub was five cubits, touching the wall of the room, and the other wing was five cubits, touching the wing of the other cherub; one wing of the other cherub was five cubits, touching the wall of the room, and the other wing also was five cubits, touching the wing of the other cherub. The wings of these cherubim spanned twenty cubits overall. They stood on their feet, and they faced inward. And he made the veil of blue, purple, crimson, and fine linen, and wove cherubim into it. 2 Chronicles 3:10-14, New King James Version

He made wreaths of chainwork, as in the inner sanctuary, and put them on top of the pillars; and he made one hundred pomegranates, and put them on the wreaths of chainwork.” 
2 Chronicles 3:16

Then he made the Sea of cast bronze, ten cubits from one brim to the other; it was completely round. Its height was five cubits, and a line of thirty cubits measured its circumference. And under it was the likeness of oxen encircling it all around, ten to a cubit, all the way around the Sea. The oxen were cast in two rows, when it was cast. It stood on twelve oxen: three looking toward the north, three looking toward the west, three looking toward the south, and three looking toward the east; the Sea was set upon them, and all their back parts pointed inward. It was a handbreadth thick; and its brim was shaped like the brim of a cup, like a lily blossom. It contained three thousand baths.” 
2 Chronicles 4:2-5

four hundred pomegranates for the two networks (two rows of pomegranates for each network, to cover the two bowl-shaped capitals that were on the pillars);” 
2 Chronicles 4:13

one Sea and twelve oxen under it;” 
2 Chronicles 4:15

Then the priests brought in the ark of the covenant of the Lord to its place, into the inner sanctuary of the temple, to the Most Holy Place, under the wings of the cherubim. For the cherubim spread their wings over the place of the ark, and the cherubim overshadowed the ark and its poles.
2 Chronicles 5:7-8

Inside the inner sanctuary he made two cherubim of olive wood, each ten cubits high. One wing of the cherub was five cubits, and the other wing of the cherub five cubits: ten cubits from the tip of one wing to the tip of the other. And the other cherub was ten cubits; both cherubim were of the same size and shape. The height of one cherub was ten cubits, and so was the other cherub. Then he set the cherubim inside the inner room; and they stretched out the wings of the cherubim so that the wing of the one touched one wall, and the wing of the other cherub touched the other wall. And their wings touched each other in the middle of the room. Also he overlaid the cherubim with gold.
Then he carved all the walls of the temple all around, both the inner and outer sanctuaries, with carved figures of cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers. And the floor of the temple he overlaid with gold, both the inner and outer sanctuaries.
For the entrance of the inner sanctuary he made doors of olive wood; the lintel and doorposts were one-fifth of the wall. The two doors were of olive wood; and he carved on them figures of cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers, and overlaid them with gold; and he spread gold on the cherubim and on the palm trees. So for the door of the sanctuary he also made doorposts of olive wood, one-fourth of the wall. And the two doors were of cypress wood; two panels comprised one folding door, and two panels comprised the other folding door. Then he carved cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers on them, and overlaid them with gold applied evenly on the carved work.
And he built the inner court with three rows of hewn stone and a row of cedar beams.” 
1 Kings 6:23-36

He also made ten carts of bronze; four cubits was the length of each cart, four cubits its width, and three cubits its height. And this was the design of the carts: They had panels, and the panels were between frames; on the panels that were between the frames were lions, oxen, and cherubim. And on the frames was a pedestal on top. Below the lions and oxen were wreaths of plaited work. Every cart had four bronze wheels and axles of bronze, and its four feet had supports. Under the laver were supports of cast bronze beside each wreath. Its opening inside the crown at the top was one cubit in diameter; and the opening was round, shaped like a pedestal, one and a half cubits in outside diameter; and also on the opening were engravings, but the panels were square, not round. Under the panels were the four wheels, and the axles of the wheels were joined to the cart. The height of a wheel was one and a half cubits. The workmanship of the wheels was like the workmanship of a chariot wheel; their axle pins, their rims, their spokes, and their hubs were all of cast bronze. And there were four supports at the four corners of each cart; its supports were part of the cart itself. On the top of the cart, at the height of half a cubit, it was perfectly round. And on the top of the cart, its flanges and its panels were of the same casting. On the plates of its flanges and on its panels he engraved cherubim, lions, and palm trees, wherever there was a clear space on each, with wreaths all around. Thus he made the ten carts. All of them were of the same mold, one measure, and one shape.
Then he made ten lavers of bronze; each laver contained forty baths, and each laver was four cubits. On each of the ten carts was a laver. And he put five carts on the right side of the house, and five on the left side of the house. He set the Sea on the right side of the house, toward the southeast.
1 Kings 7:27-39

Then they journeyed from Mount Hor by the Way of the Red Sea, to go around the land of Edom; and the soul of the people became very discouraged on the way. And the people spoke against God and against Moses: “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and our soul loathes this worthless bread.” So the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and many of the people of Israel died.
Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, “We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord and against you; pray to the Lord that He take away the serpents from us.” So Moses prayed for the people.
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Make a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and it shall be that everyone who is bitten, when he looks at it, shall live.” So Moses made a bronze serpent, and put it on a pole; and so it was, if a serpent had bitten anyone, when he looked at the bronze serpent, he lived.” 
Numbers 21:4-9

So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from there the ark of the covenant of the Lord of hosts, who dwells between the cherubim. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.” 
1 Samuel 4:4

There are images in the Bible that were not commanded by God like the images of emerods and mice made by the Philistines as peace offering to the God of Israel mentioned in 1 Samuel 6:5; 11, 17-18.

Therefore you shall make images of your tumors and images of your rats that ravage the land, and you shall give glory to the God of Israel; perhaps He will lighten His hand from you, from your gods, and from your land… And they set the ark of the Lord on the cart, and the chest with the gold rats and the images of their tumors… These are the golden tumors which the Philistines returned as a trespass offering to the Lord: one for Ashdod, one for Gaza, one for Ashkelon, one for Gath, one for Ekron; and the golden rats, according to the number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five lords, both fortified cities and country villages, even as far as the large stone of Abel on which they set the ark of the Lord, which stone remains to this day in the field of Joshua of Beth Shemesh.” 
1 Samuel 6:5; 11, 17-18 


2) To carry the image in procession

And the Levites carried the ark of God with the poles on their shoulders, as Moses had commanded in accordance with the word of the LORD.” 
1 Chronicles 15:15

They moved the ark of God from Abinadab's house on a new cart, with Uzzah and Ahio guiding it.” 
1 Chronicles 13:7 

"So Joshua son of Nun called the priests and said to them, “Take up the ark of the covenant of the Lord and have seven priests carry trumpets in front of it.” And he ordered the army, “Advance! March around the city, with an armed guard going ahead of the ark of the Lord.” 
Joshua 6:6-7

"The seven priests carrying the seven trumpets went forward, marching before the ark of the Lord and blowing the trumpets. The armed men went ahead of them and the rear guard followed the ark of the Lord, while the trumpets kept sounding.
Joshua 6:13 

So Zadok and Abiathar carried the ark of God back to Jerusalem, and they remained there.” 
2 Samuel 15:29

Now the Jordan is at flood stage all during harvest. Yet as soon as the priests who carried the ark reached the Jordan and their feet touched the water's edge,” 
Joshua 3:15

And the priests came up out of the river carrying the ark of the covenant of the LORD. No sooner had they set their feet on the dry ground than the waters of the Jordan returned to their place and ran at flood stage as before.” 
Joshua 4:18

Again, David gathered together all the chosen men of Israel, thirty thousand. And David arose, and went with all the people that were with him from Baale of Judah, to bring up from thence the ark of God, whose name is called by the name of the LORD of hosts that dwelleth between the cherubims. And they set the ark of God upon a new cart, and brought it out of the house of Abinadab that was in Gibeah: and Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, drave the new cart. And they brought it out of the house of Abinadab which was at Gibeah, accompanying the ark of God: and Ahio went before the ark. And David and all the house of Israel played before the LORD on all manner of instruments made of fir wood, even on harps, and on psalteries, and on timbrels, and on cornets, and on cymbals. And when they came to Nachon's threshingfloor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of God, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzzah; and God smote him there for his error; and there he died by the ark of God. And David was displeased, because the LORD had made a breach upon Uzzah: and he called the name of the place Perezuzzah to this day. And David was afraid of the LORD that day, and said, How shall the ark of the LORD come to me? So David would not remove the ark of the LORD unto him into the city of David: but David carried it aside into the house of Obededom the Gittite. And the ark of the LORD continued in the house of Obededom the Gittite three months: and the LORD blessed Obededom, and all his household. And it was told king David, saying, The LORD hath blessed the house of Obededom, and all that pertaineth unto him, because of the ark of God. So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obededom into the city of David with gladness. And it was so, that when they that bare the ark of the LORD had gone six paces, he sacrificed oxen and fatlings. And David danced before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod. So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the LORD with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet. And as the ark of the LORD came into the city of David, Michal Saul's daughter looked through a window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the LORD; and she despised him in her heart. And they brought in the ark of the LORD, and set it in his place, in the midst of the tabernacle that David had pitched for it: and David offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD. And as soon as David had made an end of offering burnt offerings and peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD of hosts.” 
2 Samuel 6:1-18 KJV

And Joshua rose early in the morning; and they removed from Shittim, and came to Jordan, he and all the children of Israel, and lodged there before they passed over. And it came to pass after three days, that the officers went through the host; And they commanded the people, saying, When ye see the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, and the priests the Levites bearing it, then ye shall remove from your place, and go after it.”Yet there shall be a space between you and it, about two thousand cubits by measure: come not near unto it, that ye may know the way by which ye must go: for ye have not passed this way heretofore. And Joshua said unto the people, Sanctify yourselves: for to morrow the LORD will do wonders among you. And Joshua spake unto the priests, saying, Take up the ark of the covenant, and pass over before the people. And they took up the ark of the covenant, and went before the people.
Joshua 3:1-6


3) To kneel BEFORE an image

Joshua and the elders of Israel tore their clothing in dismay, threw dust on their heads, and bowed face down to the ground before the Ark of the LORD until evening.” 
Joshua 7:6


4) To pray TO an image

343. Q. Is it allowed to pray to the crucifix or to the images and relics of the saints?
It is not allowed to pray to the crucifix or images and relics of the saints, for they have no life, nor power to help us, nor sense to hear us.” 

187. Do we pray to relics or images?
We do not pray to relies or images, for they can neither see, nor hear, nor help us. 
A Catechism of Christian Doctrine (“Penny Catechism”), The First Commandment, For England and Wales

5) To light candles

with the flowers and the lamps and the wick-trimmers of gold, of purest gold;” 
2 Chronicles 4:21

"From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder. In front of the throne, seven lamps were blazing. These are the seven spirits of God.
Revelation 4:5, New International Version

"Thou shalt make also a candlestick of beaten work of the finest gold, the shaft thereof, and the branches, the cups, and the bowls, and the lilies going forth from it.” 
Exodus 25:31

In the Tent of Meeting, outside the curtain that is in front of the Testimony, Aaron and his sons are to keep the lamps burning before the LORD from evening till morning. This is to be a lasting ordinance among the Israelites for the generations to come.” 
Exodus 27:21

Outside the curtain of the Testimony in the Tent of Meeting, Aaron is to tend the lamps before the LORD from evening till morning, continually. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.” 
Leviticus 24:3

And he said to me: What seest thou? And I said: I have looked, and behold a candlestick all of gold, and its lamp upon the top of it: and the seven lights thereof upon it: and seven funnels for the lights that were upon the top thereof.” 
Zechariah 4:2


6) Dancing and music BEFORE an image

And when the ark of the covenant of the Lord was come to the city of David, Michol the daughter of Saul looking out at a window, saw king David dancing and playing, and she despised him in her heart.” 
1 Chronicles 15:29

As the ark of the LORD was entering the City of David, Michal daughter of Saul watched from a window. And when she saw King David leaping and dancing before the LORD, she despised him in her heart.” 
2 Samuel 6:16

So all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouts, with the sounding of rams' horns and trumpets, and of cymbals, and the playing of lyres and harps.” 
1 Chronicles 15:28

They moved the ark of God from Abinadab's house on a new cart, with Uzzah and Ahio guiding it. David and all the Israelites were celebrating with all their might before God, with songs and with harps, lyres, tambourines, cymbals and trumpets.” 
1 Chronicles 13:7-8

David told the leaders of the Levites to appoint their fellow Levites as musicians to make a joyful sound with musical instruments: lyres, harps and cymbals.
So the Levites appointed Heman son of Joel; from his relatives, Asaph son of Berekiah; and from their relatives the Merarites, Ethan son of Kushaiah; and with them their relatives next in rank: Zechariah, Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom and Jeiel, the gatekeepers.
The musicians Heman, Asaph and Ethan were to sound the bronze cymbals; Zechariah, Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah and Benaiah were to play the lyres according to alamoth, and Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, Jeiel and Azaziah were to play the harps, directing according to sheminith. Kenaniah the head Levite was in charge of the singing; that was his responsibility because he was skillful at it.
Berekiah and Elkanah were to be doorkeepers for the ark. Shebaniah, Joshaphat, Nethanel, Amasai, Zechariah, Benaiah and Eliezer the priests were to blow trumpets before the ark of God. Obed-Edom and Jehiah were also to be doorkeepers for the ark.
So David and the elders of Israel and the commanders of units of a thousand went to bring up the ark of the covenant of the Lord from the house of Obed-Edom, with rejoicing. Because God had helped the Levites who were carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord, seven bulls and seven rams were sacrificed. Now David was clothed in a robe of fine linen, as were all the Levites who were carrying the ark, and as were the musicians, and Kenaniah, who was in charge of the singing of the choirs. David also wore a linen ephod. So all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the Lord with shouts, with the sounding of rams’ horns and trumpets, and of cymbals, and the playing of lyres and harps.” 
1 Chronicles 15:16-28

These are the men David put in charge of the music in the house of the Lord after the ark came to rest there. They ministered with music before the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, until Solomon built the temple of the Lord in Jerusalem. They performed their duties according to the regulations laid down for them.” 
1 Chronicles 6:31-32


God DOES NOT hate Fiestas

But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind;” 
Luke 14:13

On this mountain the LORD Almighty will prepare a feast of rich food for all peoples, a banquet of aged wine--the best of meats and the finest of wines.
Isaiah 25:6

They feast on the abundance of your house; you give them drink from your river of delights.” 
Psalm 36:8